Colombia is recognized for having a high quality coffee with different aromas and cup profiles. There are two main species Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, however, the most cultivated species is the Coffea arabica that has a low caffeine content in comparison with the other species.
In Colombia the coffees are desired by developed countries that are willing to pay an added value for an outstanding sensory experience.
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The origin of coffee comes from a tropical shrub called coffee tree. Per hectare about 5,000 trees are usually cultivated, with a planting frame with distances of 2 meters between rows by 1 meter between plants, so that there is enough distance between each plant to obtain the maximum development.
The first fruits are obtained a year and a half after planting. This initial harvest has a low productivity of 875 kilograms per hectare and between twenty and thirty years of age optimum production is reached with 37,500 kilograms per hectare.
Coffee cultivation requires an amount of rainfall between 1,800 and 2,800 millimeters per year, distributed during different months. The climate of the zone should be humid with winds of low force so that these are in charge of transporting the water vapor.
This means that the trees should be exposed to at least 4.5 to 5.5 hours of sun per day. In terms of humidity it should contain 45% to 55% in the unprocessed ripe coffee beans after harvesting.
The Colombian coffee region presents a very uniform average temperature throughout the year for the same region. It has an average temperature that varies between 18°C and 22.5°C (64°F and 72°F). Regions with temperatures outside of these limits are considered marginal.
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Considering the optimum environmental conditions for the cultivation, a planting time should be defined. For this purpose the climatic conditions of the region must be considered, since these determine the dynamics of growth and development of the coffee plant.
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